top of page
  • Claire Roth

The Lethal Diamond

When it comes to trauma, new research is showing that hypocalcemia, the loss of calcium due to blood loss, is also a factor in the “lethal triad” of acidosis, coagulopathy, and hypothermia. This condition can be further exacerbated by the citrates found in preserved blood, worsening hypocalcemia in patients. The addition of hypocalcemia to the triad would create the “lethal diamond”. As stated in the attached article, “it is hoped that this increased focus on hypocalcemia in trauma can lead to research regarding early administration of calcium with the hopes of improving trauma patient outcomes.”



Ditzel RM Jr, Anderson JL, Eisenhart WJ, et al. A review of transfusion- and trauma-induced hypocalcemia: Is it time to change the lethal triad to the lethal diamond?. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020;88(3):434-439. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002570


View article here:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338153603_A_review_of_transfusion-_and_trauma-induced_hypocalcemia_Is_it_time_to_change_the_lethal_triad_to_the_lethal_diamond

8,357 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

More studies seem to come out every day about the life-saving efforts of medical professionals around the world, especially about using whole blood quickly to help patients survive massive trauma. EMS

bottom of page